Impact Research And Technology LLC



Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

●     Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, December 2003

       Dissertation:  A Biomechanical Assessment of Female Body Armor

●     M.S., Biomedical Engineering, May 2002

●     B.S., Chemical Engineering, December 1997



  • Research Associate in the Ballistic Laboratory at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan
  • Armor Technologies Manager for ArmorWorks Enterprises, LLC in Chandler, Arizona


Journal Publications

Bir, CA, Resslar, M, Stewart, S. (2012). “Skin penetration surrogate for the evaluation of less lethal kinetic energy munitions.” Forensic Sci Int. 220(1-3): 126-9.

Stojsih S, Boitano M, Wilhelm M, Bir C. (2010). “A Prospective Study of Punch Biomechanics and Cognitive Function for Amateur Boxers.” Br J Sports Med. 44(10): 725-730.

Bir C, Barbir A, Dosquet F, Wilhelm M, van der Horst M, Wolfe G. (2008). “Validation of lower limb surrogates as injury assessment tools in floor impacts due to anti-vehicular land mines.” Mil Med. 173(12):1180-4.

Wilhelm, M. and Bir, C. (2008).  “Injuries to Law Enforcement Officers: The Backface Signature Injury.”, Forensic Science International, 174(1): 6-11.

Bir, CA, Stewart, S, Wilhelm, M. (2005). “Skin Penetration Assessment of Less Lethal Kinetic Energy Munitions,” J Forensic Sci, 50(6): 1426-29.

Papers Published in Conference Proceedings

Close, D, Babski-Reeves, K, Carruth, D, Blackledge, C, and M Wilhelm. (2009).  Effects of Body Armor Design on Upper Body Range of Motion.  HFES 2009 Annual Meeting. 

Close, D, Babski-Reeves, K, Carruth, D, Blackledge, C, and M Wilhelm. (2009). Assessment of Body Armor Design Impacts on User Perceptions.  HFES 2009 Annual Meeting. 

Bir, CA, Barbir, A, Wilhelm, M, van der Horst, M, Dosquet, F, and G Wolfe. (2006). Validation of Lower Limb Surrogates as Injury Assessment Tools in Floor Impacts due to Anti-Vehicular Land Mines. Proceedings of the International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI) 2006 Conference, Madrid, Spain, September 20-22, 2006.

Wilhelm, M, and Bir, CA. (2006).  Comparison of Male and Female Blunt Ballistic Impacts.  Proceedings of the 5th World Congress of Biomechanics, Munich, Germany, July 30-August 4, 2006.

Wilhelm, M, and Bir, CA. (2003).  Upper Torso Injuries to Female Law Enforcement Personnel Due to Firearm Assaults.  Proceedings of the NATO AVT/HFM Specialists’ Meeting, Koblenz, Germany. NATO Technical Report RTO-MP-AVT-097.

Lewis, EA, Johnson, CP, Bir, CA, M. Wilhelm, et al. (2004). An investigation to confirm the existence of "pencilling" as a non-penetrating behind armour injury.  Proceedings of the PASS 2004 Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, August 2004.

Bir, CA and Wilhelm, M. (2004).  Female Body Armor Assessment: Current Methods and Future Techniques.  Proceedings of the PASS 2004 Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, August 2004.

Sherman, D, Wilhelm, M and Bir, CA. (2001).  Accuracy Assessment of 12 Gauge Kinetic Energy Rounds.  The Third Annual Non-lethal Technology and Research Symposium, Portsmouth, NH, November 2001 – Poster.

Barbir, A, Wilhelm, M, Wolfe, G and Bir, C. (2005). Lower Limb Surrogates As Injury Assessment Tools In Floor Impacts Due To AV Landmine Explosions.  BMES, Baltimore, MD, September 2005 – Poster.